Naik Shahamad Khan, 89th Punjabis, wins the Victoria Cross near Beit Ayeesa, Mesopotamia. He beat off three enemy counter-attacks and worked his gun single-handed after all his men except two belt-fillers had become casualties.
Siege of Kut ends. Anglo-Indian garrison finally surrenders to the besieging Turkish forces after 143 days.
Battle of the Somme. Major Anglo-French offensive launched in Picardy. On the opening day, the British Army suffers 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 killed – its heaviest ever casualty toll in a 24 hour period. The battle continues until 18 November. For the Indian Army, it was the first of their 'Cavalry only' actions in France.
Battle of Delville Wood. Delville Wood on the right flank of Bazentin was attacked by the South African Brigade followed by the Scots. The 'Deccan Horse' was also part of this action.
The British get hold of Urdu letters written on silk: communication between leaders of what comes to be known as the ‘Silk Letter Movement’ (Tehreek-e-Reshmi Rumal) calling for revolution to overthrow...
The British get hold of Urdu letters written on silk: communication between leaders of what comes to be known as the ‘Silk Letter Movement’ (Tehreek-e-Reshmi Rumal) calling for revolution to overthrow British rule in India and to establish the provisional Government of India. This movement to secure Indian independence by allying with Turkey, Afghanistan and possibly Germany during the First World War is lead by Deobandi leaders. Ubaidullah Sindhi, one of the important leaders of the Silk Letter Movement, is also in touch with the revolutionaries of the Ghadar party and is one of the members of the provisional Government of India in exile formed in Kabul in 1915.
Italy declares war on Germany.
The Home Rule League movements spearheaded by Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak demand self-government for India within the British Empire.
British forces take Dar es Salaam in German East Africa.
Battle of Flers-Courcelette on the Somme. Allied forces advance, using the support of tanks for the first time.
Battle of Morval. The British turn their attention to Morval on the left flank of Delville Wood.
Battle of the Somme ends in snow and heavy rain after 142 days of fighting.
Battle of Kut Al Amara.
The Lucknow Pact calling on greater representation of Indians in governance is adopted by the Indian National Congress and the Muslim league respectively. The Congress accepts separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims.