Baghdad is captured by British and Indian forces in Mesopotamia.
First Battle of Gaza. British forces from Egypt led by General Sir Archibald Murray nearly break through Turkish lines in Palestine, but fail to exploit their success.
Battle of Arras. British forces advance over 5km (3½ miles) on the opening day. The Canadians seize Vimy Ridge. Fighting continues until 4 May with increasingly heavy casualties.
Second Battle of the Aisne. Offensive launched by the French under General Robert Nivelle along the Chemin des Dames. Following heavy casualties, fighting called off on 20 April after few gains.
Second Battle of Gaza. British troops in Palestine are heavily defeated by Turkish forces in a renewed attempt to break through.
Imperial War Graves Commission, later the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is established.
Battle of Messines. After the explosion of 19 huge mines, British, Irish, Australian and New Zealand troops seize the Messines Ridge south of Ypres. Fighting continues until 14 June.
Third battle of Ypres, popularly known as Passchendaele, begins. Fighting continues until 10 November.
‘August announcement’ by Lord Montagu in the House of Commons about the ‘gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire’. This marks the initiation of measures that resulted in the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Battle of the Menin Road Ridge. Renewed attack by British, Australian and New Zealand troops towards Passchendaele begins steady advances in dry weather.
Second Battle of Passchendaele. British and Canadian troops begin the final assault on the village.
Battle of Sharqat.
Third Battle of Gaza. Led by Allenby, British troops, combined with an Australian attack at Beersheba, finally breaking through Turkish lines in Palestine.
British government issues the Balfour Declaration, supporting the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Second Russian Revolution. Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, seize power and overthrow the Provisional Government.
Third Battle of Ypres ends with the capture of Passchendaele village.
The ‘Hindu-German Conspiracy trial’ begins in the United States after the ‘Indo-German plot’ involving German officials and Indian revolutionaries to overthrow the British is uncovered. The main charge investigated in the trial was the ‘Annie Larsen affair’ involving the Ghadar Party, the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the German Foreign office, a plot to ship arms (on the ship Annie Larsen) to India through the US.
Battle of El Mughar.
Battle of Nebi Samwil.
Battle of Cambrai. Using tanks, aircraft and artillery, a major advance is made into the Hindenburg line.
Lance-Dafadar Gobind Singh, 28th Light Cavalry, wins the Victoria Cross at east of Pozières, France. He volunteered three times to carry messages between the regiment and brigade headquarters, a distance of 1.5 miles over open ground which was under heavy fire from the enemy.
Battle of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem taken by the British forces in Palestine, ending 673 years of Turkish rule.
Bolshevik government in Russia signs an armistice with the Germans, suspending hostilities on the Eastern Front.