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24 February Kut Al Amara recaptured as part of a new British offensive in Mesopotamia aimed at reaching Baghdad.
25 February German forces facing the Somme withdraw around 40km (25 miles) to new, strongly prepared defences known to the British as the Hindenburg Line. The withdrawal continues until 5 April.
5 March British government approves the creation of a National War Museum in London. It is renamed the Imperial War Museum in December to reflect the efforts of people from across the Empire.
11 March

Baghdad is captured by British and Indian forces in Mesopotamia.

26 March

First Battle of Gaza. British forces from Egypt led by General Sir Archibald Murray nearly break through Turkish lines in Palestine, but fail to exploit their success.

26 March Battle of Khan Baghdadi.
6 April The United States of America declares war on Germany and sides with the Allies.
9 April

Battle of Arras. British forces advance over 5km (3½ miles) on the opening day. The Canadians seize Vimy Ridge. Fighting continues until 4 May with increasingly heavy casualties.

16 April

Second Battle of the Aisne. Offensive launched by the French under General Robert Nivelle along the Chemin des Dames. Following heavy casualties, fighting called off on 20 April after few gains.

17 April

Second Battle of Gaza. British troops in Palestine are heavily defeated by Turkish forces in a renewed attempt to break through.

21 May

Imperial War Graves Commission, later the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is established.

7 June

Battle of Messines. After the explosion of 19 huge mines, British, Irish, Australian and New Zealand troops seize the Messines Ridge south of Ypres. Fighting continues until 14 June.

31 July

Third battle of Ypres, popularly known as Passchendaele, begins. Fighting continues until 10 November.

20 August

‘August announcement’ by Lord Montagu in the House of Commons about the ‘gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire’. This marks the initiation of measures that resulted in the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.

20 September

Battle of the Menin Road Ridge. Renewed attack by British, Australian and New Zealand troops towards Passchendaele begins steady advances in dry weather.

26 October

Second Battle of Passchendaele. British and Canadian troops begin the final assault on the village.

28 October

Battle of Sharqat.

31 October

Third Battle of Gaza. Led by Allenby, British troops, combined with an Australian attack at Beersheba, finally breaking through Turkish lines in Palestine.

2 November

British government issues the Balfour Declaration, supporting the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

7 November

Second Russian Revolution. Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, seize power and overthrow the Provisional Government.

10 November

Third Battle of Ypres ends with the capture of Passchendaele village.

12 November

The ‘Hindu-German Conspiracy trial’ begins in the United States after the ‘Indo-German plot’ involving German officials and Indian revolutionaries to overthrow the British is uncovered. The main charge investigated in the trial was the ‘Annie Larsen affair’ involving the Ghadar Party, the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the German Foreign office, a plot to ship arms (on the ship Annie Larsen) to India through the US.

13 November

Battle of El Mughar.

17-24 November

Battle of Nebi Samwil.

20 November

Battle of Cambrai. Using tanks, aircraft and artillery, a major advance is made into the Hindenburg line.

1 December

Lance-Dafadar Gobind Singh, 28th Light Cavalry, wins the Victoria Cross at east of Pozières, France. He volunteered three times to carry messages between the regiment and brigade headquarters, a distance of 1.5 miles over open ground which was under heavy fire from the enemy.

7 December

Battle of Jerusalem.

9 December

Jerusalem taken by the British forces in Palestine, ending 673 years of Turkish rule.

15 December

Bolshevik government in Russia signs an armistice with the Germans, suspending hostilities on the Eastern Front.